Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your list of works cited should begin at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, utilising the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials regarding the first and middle names are given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out of the names of months when you look at the text of the paper, but abbreviate them into the variety of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and start to become consistent. Aided by the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had no way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of utilizing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the very first line of an entry must certanly be flush left, while the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions for this rule will be periodical titles and proper names in a title which will still be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and it is accompanied by the quantity number which, utilizing the title, is also italicized.
When there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of the author that is last. If there are many more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Place the date of publication in parentheses just after the name associated with author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then provide the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, as with newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month https://eliteessaywriters.com/blog/argumentative-essay-topics day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, relate to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually look at your references to online documents. There’s no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find a few of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and website that is complexsuch as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization together with relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.